information warfare 1
Friday, January 13, 2006
  NUCLEAR WARFARE


















Historical close calls

Before the collapse of the Soviet Union and end of the Cold War, an apocalyptic war between the United States and USSR was considered likely. The Cuban missile crisis in 1962 is generally thought to be the historical point at which the risk of World War III was closest. Other potential starts have included the following (see External links below for further examples):

* July 26th, 1956 – March, 1957 — Suez Crisis: the conflict pitted Egypt against an alliance between the French Fourth Republic, the United Kingdom and Israel. The USSR threatened to intervene on behalf of Egypt, the US became afraid of a larger war, and persuaded the British and French to withdraw.


* October 24, 1973 — As the Yom Kippur War was winding down, a Soviet threat to intervene on Egypt's behalf caused the United States to go to DEFCON 3.


* November 9, 1979, when the US made emergency retaliation preparations after NORAD saw on-screen indications that a full-scale Soviet attack had been launched. No attempt was made to use the "red telephone" hotline to clarify the situation with the USSR and it was not until early-warning radar systems confirmed no such launch had taken place that NORAD realised that a computer system test had caused the display errors. A Senator at NORAD at the time described an atmosphere of absolute panic. A GAO investigation led to the construction of an off-site test facility, to prevent similar mistakes subsequently. A fictionalized version of this incident was filmed as the movie WarGames, in which the test system is inadvertently triggered by a teenage hacker believing himself to be playing a video game.


* September 26, 1983, when Soviet early warning system showed that a US ICBMs attack had been launched. Colonel Stanislav Petrov, in command of the monitoring facility put the warning down to computer error and did not notify his superiors, who would have most probably launched a counter-attack.


* November 1983: Exercise Able Archer — The USSR mistook a test of NATO's nuclear-release procedures as a fake cover for a NATO attack and subsequently raised its nuclear alert level. It was not until afterwards that the US realized how close it had come to nuclear war. At the time of the exercise the Soviet Politburo was without a healthy functioning head due to the failing health of then leader Yuri Andropov, which is thought to have been one of the contributing factors to the Soviet paranoia over the exercise.


* January 25, 1995, when Russia almost launched a nuclear attack after a Norwegian missile launch for scientific research was detected from Spitzbergen and thought to be an attack on Russia, launched five minutes from Moscow. Norway had notified the world that it would be making the launch, but the Russian Defense Ministry had neglected to notify those monitoring Russia's nuclear defense systems.


In addition to the above there are two other points during the Cold War that may have resulted in world war. These, however, are not generally listed as they do not relate to the United States-Soviet Union rivalry, but rather the events following the Sino-Soviet Split of 1960. The ideological split between Maoist communists (represented primarily by China) and Stalinist communists (represented primarily by the Soviet Union) divided the entire communist movement worldwide — which controlled governments or significant rebel factions on most continents. Thus a war between China and the Soviet Union may well have resulted in world war, whilst not necessarily involving the U.S. and the capitalist west (although the U.S. may have opportunistically intervened whilst its two communist rivals were distracted by war with each other). The two points the communist powers almost entered into all-out war were:

* March, 1969, when border clashes broke out between Soviet and Chinese troops over Zhen Bao Island in the Ussuri River. In total the Soviets suffered about 90 casualties to the 800 for the Chinese. At the time there were almost one and a half million troops deployed along the border.
* 1978 and 1979, in which the pro-Soviet Vietnam invaded the pro-China Cambodia and removed Pol Pot. China in turn invaded Vietnam in retaliation and the Soviets denounced this action strongly, although it fell short of taking action. The next year the Soviets invaded Afghanistan and the Chinese claimed this was a continuation of a strategy of encircling China with Soviet allies that had begun the previous year with the invasion of Cambodia.


Some examples of close calls are more rhetorical than real. In 1999 NATO's Supreme Allied Commander, U.S. Army General Wesley Clark, ordered British Army Lt. Gen. Mike Jackson to hinder Russian troops from occupying the Pristina airport during the Kosovo War, "if necessary with military force"; Jackson refused to carry out the order with the words: "I won't start World War III for you!"
  • (link)

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    von Neumann said it was "absolutely certain (1) that there would be a nuclear war; and (2) that everyone would die in it" (underline added to quote from: The Nature of the Physical Universe – 1979, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0471031909, in H. Putnam’s essay The place of facts in a world of values - page 113). This example illustrates why respectable scientists are very reluctant to go on record with extinction predictions: they can never be proven right. (The quotation is repeated by Leslie (1996) on page 26, on the subject of nuclear war annihilation, which he still considered a significant risk – in the mid 1990s.)
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    Many people, including many of the scientists involved in the bomb project, were shocked by the devastation that the bombs produced, reports of which filtered into the United States over time. The pride which Oppenheimer had felt after the successful "Trinity" test was soon replaced by guilt and horror. "In some sort of crude sense which no vulgarity, no humor, no overstatement can quite extinguish," he later famously said, "the physicists have known sin; and this is a knowledge which they cannot lose." Los Alamos was awarded the Army-Navy "Excellence" Award shortly thereafter, and in his acceptance speech for the lab, Oppenheimer warned that:

    "If atomic bombs are to be added as new weapons to the arsenals of a warring world, or to the arsenals of the nations preparing for war, then the time will come when mankind will curse the names of Los Alamos and Hiroshima. The people of this world must unite or they will perish."
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    In 1945, our collective state of mind was despair. World War II touched every inhabitable continent, leaving more than 50 million dead and millions of others as refugees. The conflict had spanned more than half a decade. It would effectively end during an interval of 43 seconds--the time it took for the atomic bomb to explode over Hiroshima after it was released by the Enola Gay on August 6. Three days later, a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, followed by Japan's surrender.

    Sixty years later, we live in a world where the capacity for mass destruction is no longer limited to superpowers--or, for that matter, to nations. Our collective state of mind is one of vulnerability. The bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are not just historical events but portents of a possible future for any city, anywhere. And it is through that lens that we find ourselves looking back at the decision of President Harry S. Truman and its legacy.
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  • 1. Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki


  • 2. Doomsday device


  • 3. Effects of Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War


  • 4. Example Scenarios


  • 5. Hiroshima victims


  • 6. Harry S. Truman


  • 7. Human extinction


  • 8. John von Neumann


  • 9. Nuclear summer


  • 10. Nuclear Test Image Gallery


  • 11.Nuclear Warfare


  • 12. Nuclear weapon


  • 13. Nuclear winter


  • 14. Online Resources about Nuclear Weapons


  • 15. Robert Oppenheimer


  • 16. Terror of the Atomic Bomb - Hiroshima and Nagasaki


  • 17. World War III






  • IMAGES (from top):

    - The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945
  • (link)

  • - Hiroshima: the T-shaped Aioi Bridge, in the upper portion of the photograph, was the aim point for the Enola Gay.
  • (link)

  • - Human bones scattered across the ground in the wake of the atomic bomb of Hiroshima.
  • (link)

  • - Human remains left by a victim of the atomic attack on Nagasaki.
  • (link)

  • - Fused Lump from Hiroshima Containing Human Bones exposed to super-high temperature fires
  • (link 1)
  • (link 2: SEE Peace Memorial Museum-West Building-The Fury of the Conflagration-Looking at the List)





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  • "The world isn’t run by weapons anymore, or energy, or money. It’s run by little ones and zeros, little bits of data. It’s all just electrons.... There’s a war out there ... and it’s not about who’s got the most bullets. It’s about who controls the information. What we see and hear, how we work, what we think, it’s all about information."
  • ARCHIVES
    December 2005 / January 2006 / February 2006 / March 2006 / June 2006 /



  • ANCIENT FORESTS




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  • 20 MISHAPS THAT MIGHT HAVE STARTED ACCIDENTAL NUCLEAR WAR




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  • Michael Moore website- Moore's body of work has attracted a great deal of criticism and praise, especially after the release of his film Fahrenheit 9/11
  • Michael Moore in the Wikipedia
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  • Adbusters - Jam corporate culture



  • BAN TERMINATOR- Terminator technology refers to plants that have been genetically modified to render sterile seeds at harvest



  • Bilderberg



  • BushFlash- BushFlash.com is a website founded by the liberal, anti-George W. Bush activist Eric Blumrich. It contains animations, pictures, and comments about Bush and his policies.



  • Campaign For A Commercial-Free Childhood-""We support the rights of children to grow up - and the rights of parents to raise them - without being undermined by rampant consumerism."



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  • Federation of American Scientists



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  • GNN - Guerrilla News Network-"Our mission is to expose people to important global issues through cross-platform guerrilla programming."



  • Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum - It contains informative exhibitions and items connected with that fateful August 6th day in 1945. In addition to historical records, contemporary exhibits here attest to the continued threat of nuclear arms
  • Peace Declaration
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  • From the exhibits



  • The History Channel- History is a part of our world and culture that we cannot affort to indulge in forgetting; if we do so, we may jump again into old, tried-and-tru mistakes.
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  • International Forum on Globalization - formed to stimulate new thinking, joint activity, and public education in response to economic globalization.



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  • Mark Dery's Pyrotechnic Insanitarium- the media, the visual landscape, fringe trends, and unpopular culture



  • The Nazi Hydra in America



  • NoLogo - a website that was launched following the success of Naomi's first book, No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies (1999). In fact, it is sort of a brand-extension of that book. NoLogo.org is not an organization, an activist group or a research institute. It really is just a website. NoLogo.org was first launched in March, 2001. The site was designed to be an on-line portal to the global justice movement for readers of the book who wanted to read further and get involved in the movements against corporate exploitation and neoliberal globalization



  • Opus Dei Awareness Network



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  • Propaganda - Created eight years ago, when the world-wide web was in its infancy, the propaganda site is inspired by the pioneering work of the Institute for Propaganda Analysis (IPA). From 1937 to 1942, the IPA was dedicated to promoting the techniques of propaganda analysis among critically-minded citizens. A revamped version of the site was launched in September 2002. The new URL (http://www.propagandacritic.com) was selected because it is easy to remember. The name "propaganda critic" should not be interpreted as suggesting that the author is attempting to pass himself off as "the propaganda critic." In a functioning democracy, all thinking citizens are entitled to consider themselves critics of propaganda.

  • Propaganda Critic Video Gallery :

  • Duck and Cover (1951) - In this classic from the early 1950's, Bert the Turtle teaches children to "duck and cover" in the event of a nuclear blast.


  • My Japan (1945) - My Japan is an American anti-Japanese propaganda film produced in 1945 to spur sale of American war bonds. The film takes the form of a mock travelogue of Japan, given by a crudely made-up narrator speaking in a fake Japanese accent. The technique used in My Japan is a form of reverse psychology - to make Americans angry with themselves for their materialistic values, and then turn this anger against the enemy (link 1)
  • link 2
  • Wikipedia information
  • Review of My Japan


  • Make Mine Freedom (1948) - This humorous cartoon, produced during the peak of the cold war, links patriotism to a particular viewpoint about how the economy should be organized.


  • Brink of Disaster(Part I)(1972) - Drugs Dissent 1960s Social Issues Protest Revolution: Film opens with montage of scenes of student protest. Credits occur over this sequence. Loosely structured as a narrative in which John Smith (a college student) is visited by his great great great (etc.) grandfather John Smith (from 1776), this film works to educate a young audience on the "breakdown of moral, religious, and ethical principles" in the US. With the help of a history professor, John Smith (1776) explains how he gave his life to build the USA and nowadays a "bunch of young hooligans" are working to destroy it. Though fairly banal visually (the whole film is set in a library which the "weirdos" have threatened to torch) there are tons of amazing sound bytes regarding student movements (SDS as "students for a dirtier society"), religion, marijuana, sexuality, freedom of speech ("freedom of speech has become freedom of filth"), pornography ("filthy books that no decent people would read"). There is discussion of H. "Rap" Brown (accompanied by archival footage) calling upon student bodies to carry guns. There is also footage and discussion of the riots, burning, and looting done by student activists. The film ends as the student radicals break their way into the library--the image freezes and a title card reads: "will you let this be THE END?".
  • Part II
  • link: Media Resources Center

  • Destination Earth (1956) - In this corporate-sponsored cartoon, Martian dissidents learn that oil and competition are the two things that make America great. It is a sci-fi-influenced economic tract on the strengths of Earth-style free enterprise economics, compared to a stagnating Mars under the fist of a certain Mr. Ogg, who centrally controls the Martian economy. In the film, a Martian undercover agent flies from Mars to Earth to learn about the oil industry.
  • American Petroleum Institute - commonly referred to as API, is the main professional organization for the petroleum and chemical industry. API distributes more than 200,000 publications each year. The publications, technical standards, and electronic and online products are designed to help users improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of their operations
  • Exxon Secrets Factsheet - Based in Washington DC, API has offices in 33 capital cities and works with regional and state oil and gas associations in over a dozen more. Through publications and press releases, the association promotes deregulation of environmental standards impacting the industry. API claims that "burdensome" regulations cost billions, but do not provide any benefits. API argues environmental regulations are based upon faulty science or are the result of scare tactics advanced by the environmental community. API is a member of the National Wetlands Coalition and has provided funding to the Cato Institute, Citizens for a Sound Economy and other organizations that oppose regulations aimed to prevent global warming.
  • API Voter Guide
  • J.Howard Pew - Facing the Corporate Roots of American Fascism
  • Against Nature:"Green Dreams or a Fascist Nightmare?"
  • Facts and Fascism
  • Bush's talent for cronyism: foxes guarding the henhouse
  • Ex-oil lobbyist watered down US climate research
  • James Inhofe
  • Crimes Against Nature: Bush is sabotaging the laws that have protected America's environment for more than thirty years
  • Partners in Crime
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  • Greenpeace: Stop Esso

  • War Film - The war film is a film genre that has to do with warfare, usually focusing on naval, air, or land battles, but sometimes focusing instead on prisoners of war, covert operations, military training, or other related subjects. Sometimes they focus on daily military or civilian life in wartime without depicting battles directly. Their stories may be fiction, based on history, or docudrama.



  • Rise Up Fest - The main objective of "Rise Up" Fest - Alter-Globalization Cycle of Activism is to awake consciousnesses and allow for individuals to know, in its multiple aspects - social, cultural and ecological - the real characteristics of the globalization phenomenon, and how it determines the life of bilions of beings in the entire planet



  • ®TMark - Sabotage corporate culture



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  • The Animatrix: The Second Renaissance part 1 and 2



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